The good news in advance: the weather is still hot and I have put my feet in the cold water.
Well, 3 micro-USB cables later, I am pleased with the fact that the device manager has always reacted and so I have tried my versatile USB ports available on the PC. The result is sobering: my blue USB ports do not work (as it turns out, there are USB3.0 ports) and my orange USB2.0 ports work right away.
With my comfortably available USB ports on the PC front are blue and therefore only work with an Arduino, but not with the Photon device.
So I am the improvement suggestion to make the USB port 3.0 suitable. Thx ScruffR!
I advise to adjust the Docs (at least I have found no indication to it immediately that only USB2.0 is supported).