Looking for a simple experiment with the device without using claiming or cloud. Is this possible?
Arduino IDE is no option, but when you say “like” what other IDEs have you got in mind?
Have you tried out Particle Workbench (VS Code) yet?
As @scruffr has pointed out using the Arduino IDE is not an option. However, you can develop an application on the Web IDE, compile and download the binary and flash it to any device in DFU mode connected via USB using the CLI. You would need to have at least 1 Argon claimed to select as the target device. You would also need to download and flash the correct Device OS that you have set as the target.
You need not have claimed the specific device (registered it on the Particle Cloud) since you are not wanting to connect via WiFi to the Cloud. You should put
SYSTEM_MODE(MANUAL); at the start of your application. In this case the device is then being used like an Arduino UNO with no wireless comms!
perhaps platformIO IDE. the nordic RF52840-DK board is listed. although i have not tried it with an argon, i have used the IDE and it works. it installs in vs-code. free. open source.