Should work on Ubuntu just as well, but I personally only used it on Windows and Chrome yet - will go to try on Raspbian and Chromium now.
Yup, Raspbian with Chromium works just fine.
Have you followed the steps on the screen?
Put the device into Listening Mode (blinking blue)
Got to your PCs WiFi settings and choose the WiFi AP exposed by the Photon (called something like
Once the PCs detects that network the web page should procede to the next step
If you can post a screenshot of the page where you are stuck at, we might be able to help further