I just got it working this afternoon on my Mac. I also used the blinkled example. The problem I had was I needed to add the '#include "application.h" ' line when blinkled.ino was changed to blinkled.cpp.
I saw that you did a:
make all PLATFORM=photon program-dfu APPDIR=../../blinkled
which did not work for you. I did a make with the following:
Then I flashed it through WiFi update where photon LED was "breathing" cyan:
This worked for me. You might also try other methods:
A. Device is in DFU mode blinking yellow
B. Device is in Listening mode blinking blue
These also worked for me.