Terminology/definition question

Can someone help?
What is the difference between the different types of files?
I have seen files that are labeled INO, files labeled CPP and files labeled H.
What are the differences between these files?
Which files are actual main files that can be runned and compiled?

.ino is the user app/firmware
You can also use .cpp for .ino which changes behavior of the Particle compiler (advanced use cases).

.h indicates a c/c++ Header file
.cpp indicates a c/c++ Implementation file
These are usually associated with libraries which can be thought of as the microcontroller version of device driver or software features not included in the base Particle software (OS to keep the analogy).

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