LIS3DH accelerometer and Particle Photon

Hello everyone,

Me and the rest of the team at Sentar (very early stage startup) might have some serious troubles, as we have bought 10 LIS3DH accelerometers for our prototypes, and just figured that it might be very difficult to hook them up with our Particle Photons without a library. Soo, do any of you have experience hooking up and LIS3DH (https://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-lis3dh-triple-axis-accelerometer-breakout/wiring-and-test) with a Particle Photon? - and can you maybe help us out or point us in the right direction? We have tried importing the Arduino Library into Particle Dev and tried to use other libraries, but haven’t had any luck yet. All we need to do is to read raw data from the z axis :smile:

Hope someone can help us out.

Regards Mads R. Svendsen

What sort of troubles did you have?
Have you looked at some threads about porting Arduino libraries?

This sensor uses SPI or I2C so it shouldn’t be too hard to port (said without having looked at the lib)

@svendsen2032, I looked at the library and it should be straight forward to port. It does use software SPI if you chose SPI mode. This allows you to specify which pins you use for SPI but is slower than hardware SPI. :smiley:

1 Like

@peekay123 and @ScruffR, we are having problems porting these two Arduino libraries (LIS3DH and [Adafruit sensor][2)] to Particle using Particle Dev. Until now I have included the libraries in our code using learn. adafruit.com guide and I have used this Spark-ported-libraries guide to port the 2 libraries. Until now I have changed the following for each of the 3 files in the two libraries:

#if ARDUINO >= 100
 #include "Arduino.h"
#else
 #include "WProgram.h"
#endif

#include <Wire.h>
#ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  #include <SPI.h>
#endif
#include <Adafruit_Sensor.h>

to something similar to this:

  #include "application.h"
  #include "Adafruit_Sensor.h"
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__ 

However, I seem to get a lot of errors regarding SPIClass and SPISettings regarding non excisting members named beginTransaction, endTransaction.

Can you help me regarding this matter?

Should I upload the entire code to make it easier for you to troubleshoot?

Thanks - Mads

Yup, these functions don’t exist (yet - but have been proposed by @peekay123).
But you can replace them like this

      SPI.begin();
      SPI.setClockSpeed(frequency);
      SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
      SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
      // SPI.beginTransaction(SPISettings(frequency, MSBFIRST, SPI_MODE0));

@ScruffR and @peekay123 we got the libraries to “work” or at least compile without errors. However, when i flash the code to my Particle Photon it wont work and every time the Photon tries to connect, it starts flashing red and then continues looping. I have wired the LIS3DH like this:

// Used for software SPI
#define LIS3DH_CLK D1
#define LIS3DH_MISO D2
#define LIS3DH_MOSI D0
// Used for hardware & software SPI
#define LIS3DH_CS D3

And besides copied the example “acceldemo” from the Adafruit_LIS3DH library on GitHub.

My Adafruit_LIS3DH library ported to Particle looks like this:

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @file     Adafruit_LIS3DH.cpp
    @author   K. Townsend / Limor Fried (Adafruit Industries)
    @license  BSD (see license.txt)

    This is a library for the Adafruit LIS3DH Accel breakout board
    ----> https://www.adafruit.com/products/2809

    Adafruit invests time and resources providing this open source code,
    please support Adafruit and open-source hardware by purchasing
    products from Adafruit!

    @section  HISTORY

    v1.0  - First release
*/
/**************************************************************************/

  #include "application.h"
  #include "Adafruit_LIS3DH.h"

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Instantiates a new LIS3DH class in I2C or SPI mode
*/
/**************************************************************************/
// I2C
Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH()
  : _cs(-1), _mosi(-1), _miso(-1), _sck(-1), _sensorID(-1)
{
}

Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin)
  : _cs(cspin), _mosi(-1), _miso(-1), _sck(-1), _sensorID(-1)
{ }

Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin, int8_t mosipin, int8_t misopin, int8_t sckpin)
  : _cs(cspin), _mosi(mosipin), _miso(misopin), _sck(sckpin), _sensorID(-1)
{ }



/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Setups the HW (reads coefficients values, etc.)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
bool Adafruit_LIS3DH::begin(uint8_t i2caddr) {
  _i2caddr = i2caddr;


  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.begin();
  } else {
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    pinMode(_cs, OUTPUT);

#ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
    if (_sck == -1) {
      // hardware SPI
      SPI.begin();
    } else {
      // software SPI
      pinMode(_sck, OUTPUT);
      pinMode(_mosi, OUTPUT);
      pinMode(_miso, INPUT);
    }
#endif
  }

  /*
  for (uint8_t i=0; i<0x30; i++) {
    Serial.print("$");
    Serial.print(i, HEX); Serial.print(" = 0x");
    Serial.println(readRegister8(i), HEX);
  }
  */

  /* Check connection */
  uint8_t deviceid = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_WHOAMI);
  if (deviceid != 0x33)
  {
    /* No LIS3DH detected ... return false */
    //Serial.println(deviceid, HEX);
    return false;
  }

  // enable all axes, normal mode
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1, 0x07);
  // 400Hz rate
  setDataRate(LIS3DH_DATARATE_400_HZ);

  // High res & BDU enabled
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4, 0x88);

  // DRDY on INT1
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, 0x10);

  // Turn on orientation config
  //writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_PL_CFG, 0x40);

  // enable adcs
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TEMPCFG, 0x80);

  /*
  for (uint8_t i=0; i<0x30; i++) {
    Serial.print("$");
    Serial.print(i, HEX); Serial.print(" = 0x");
    Serial.println(readRegister8(i), HEX);
  }
  */

  return true;
}

void Adafruit_LIS3DH::read(void) {
  // read x y z at once

  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write(LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_L | 0x80); // 0x80 for autoincrement
    Wire.endTransmission();

    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 6);
    x = Wire.read(); x |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
    y = Wire.read(); y |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
    z = Wire.read(); z |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_L | 0x80 | 0x40); // read multiple, bit 7&6 high

  x = spixfer(); x |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;
  y = spixfer(); y |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;
  z = spixfer(); z |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;

  digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
  if (_sck == -1)
  SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif
  uint8_t range = getRange();
  uint16_t divider = 1;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_16_G) divider = 1365; // different sensitivity at 16g
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_8_G) divider = 4096;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_4_G) divider = 8190;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_2_G) divider = 16380;

  x_g = (float)x / divider;
  y_g = (float)y / divider;
  z_g = (float)z / divider;

}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Read the auxilary ADC
*/
/**************************************************************************/

int16_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::readADC(uint8_t adc) {
  if ((adc < 1) || (adc > 3)) return 0;
  uint16_t value;

  adc--;

  uint8_t reg = LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC1_L + adc*2;

  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write(reg | 0x80);   // 0x80 for autoincrement
    Wire.endTransmission();
    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 2);
    value = Wire.read();  value |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg | 0x80 | 0x40); // read multiple, bit 7&6 high

    value = spixfer(); value |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;

    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif

  return value;
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Set INT to output for single or double click
*/
/**************************************************************************/

void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setClick(uint8_t c, uint8_t clickthresh, uint8_t timelimit, uint8_t timelatency, uint8_t timewindow) {
  if (!c) {
    //disable int
    uint8_t r = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3);
    r &= ~(0x80); // turn off I1_CLICK
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, r);
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0);
    return;
  }
  // else...

  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, 0x80); // turn on int1 click
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL5, 0x08); // latch interrupt on int1

  if (c == 1)
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0x15); // turn on all axes & singletap
  if (c == 2)
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0x2A); // turn on all axes & doubletap


  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKTHS, clickthresh); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMELIMIT, timelimit); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMELATENCY, timelatency); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMEWINDOW, timewindow); // arbitrary
}

uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getClick(void) {
  return readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKSRC);
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the g range for the accelerometer
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setRange(lis3dh_range_t range)
{
  uint8_t r = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4);
  r &= ~(0x30);
  r |= range << 4;
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4, r);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the g range for the accelerometer
*/
/**************************************************************************/
lis3dh_range_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getRange(void)
{
  /* Read the data format register to preserve bits */
  return (lis3dh_range_t)((readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4) >> 4) & 0x03);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the data rate for the LIS3DH (controls power consumption)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setDataRate(lis3dh_dataRate_t dataRate)
{
  uint8_t ctl1 = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1);
  ctl1 &= ~(0xF0); // mask off bits
  ctl1 |= (dataRate << 4);
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1, ctl1);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the data rate for the LIS3DH (controls power consumption)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
lis3dh_dataRate_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getDataRate(void)
{
  return (lis3dh_dataRate_t)((readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1) >> 4)& 0x0F);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Gets the most recent sensor event
*/
/**************************************************************************/
bool Adafruit_LIS3DH::getEvent(sensors_event_t *event) {
  /* Clear the event */
  memset(event, 0, sizeof(sensors_event_t));

  event->version   = sizeof(sensors_event_t);
  event->sensor_id = _sensorID;
  event->type      = SENSOR_TYPE_ACCELEROMETER;
  event->timestamp = 0;

  read();

  event->acceleration.x = x_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
  event->acceleration.y = y_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
  event->acceleration.z = z_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Gets the sensor_t data
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::getSensor(sensor_t *sensor) {
  /* Clear the sensor_t object */
  memset(sensor, 0, sizeof(sensor_t));

  /* Insert the sensor name in the fixed length char array */
  strncpy (sensor->name, "LIS3DH", sizeof(sensor->name) - 1);
  sensor->name[sizeof(sensor->name)- 1] = 0;
  sensor->version     = 1;
  sensor->sensor_id   = _sensorID;
  sensor->type        = SENSOR_TYPE_ACCELEROMETER;
  sensor->min_delay   = 0;
  sensor->max_value   = 0;
  sensor->min_value   = 0;
  sensor->resolution  = 0;
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Low level SPI
*/
/**************************************************************************/

uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::spixfer(uint8_t x) {
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  if (_sck == -1)
    return SPI.transfer(x);

  // software spi
  //Serial.println("Software SPI");
  uint8_t reply = 0;
  for (int i=7; i>=0; i--) {
    reply <<= 1;
    digitalWrite(_sck, LOW);
    digitalWrite(_mosi, x & (1<<i));
    digitalWrite(_sck, HIGH);
    if (digitalRead(_miso))
      reply |= 1;
  }
  return reply;
  #endif
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Writes 8-bits to the specified destination register
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::writeRegister8(uint8_t reg, uint8_t value) {
  if (_cs == -1) {
    Wire.beginTransmission((uint8_t)_i2caddr);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)reg);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)value);
    Wire.endTransmission();
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg & ~0x80); // write, bit 7 low
    spixfer(value);
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Reads 8-bits from the specified register
*/
/**************************************************************************/
uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::readRegister8(uint8_t reg) {
  uint8_t value;

  if (_cs == -1) {
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)reg);
    Wire.endTransmission();

    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 1);
    value = Wire.read();
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg | 0x80); // read, bit 7 high
    value = spixfer(0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();
  }
  #endif
  return value;
}

Could you add some Serial.print() statements in your code and see how far the sketch runs till it crashes?
Could you also be a bit more specific what red flash you see (I guess it’s some SOS +x blinks).
Also only posting the lib code but not how you use it is only half the required information.

I’m not sure about this. digitalWrite() has a sanity check if pinMode() is already set to OUTPUT but won’t do anything (I think) if not.

Either use pinSetFast(_cs) instead of digitalWrite() or swap the two lines around (the more compatible version).

@ScruffR & @peekay123 We have now had some luck and got the library to work using the SPI settings.

First of, the accelerometer was wired up wrong. It had to be wired like this:

// Used for software SPI
#define LIS3DH_CLK A3 //SCL
#define LIS3DH_MISO A4 //SDO
#define LIS3DH_MOSI A5 //SDA
// Used for hardware & software SPI
#define LIS3DH_CS A2 //CS

Adafruit_LIS3DH lis = Adafruit_LIS3DH(LIS3DH_CS, LIS3DH_MOSI, LIS3DH_MISO, LIS3DH_CLK);

However, we can’t get the I2C to work.

Would be really nice if someone had the time to take a look at it and do the final porting, making it 100% workable for Particle :smile:

Thanks for all of the help.

Adafruit_LIS3DH.cpp

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @file     Adafruit_LIS3DH.cpp
    @author   K. Townsend / Limor Fried (Adafruit Industries)
    @license  BSD (see license.txt)

    This is a library for the Adafruit LIS3DH Accel breakout board
    ----> https://www.adafruit.com/products/2809

    Adafruit invests time and resources providing this open source code,
    please support Adafruit and open-source hardware by purchasing
    products from Adafruit!

    @section  HISTORY

    v1.0  - First release
*/
/**************************************************************************/
#include "Adafruit_LIS3DH.h"

#if defined (SPARK)
  #include "application.h"
#else
  #if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
    #include "Arduino.h"
  #else
    #include "WProgram.h"
  #endif
#endif

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Instantiates a new LIS3DH class in I2C or SPI mode
*/
/**************************************************************************/
// I2C
Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH()
  : _cs(-1), _mosi(-1), _miso(-1), _sck(-1), _sensorID(-1)
{
}

Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin)
  : _cs(cspin), _mosi(-1), _miso(-1), _sck(-1), _sensorID(-1)
{ }

Adafruit_LIS3DH::Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin, int8_t mosipin, int8_t misopin, int8_t sckpin)
  : _cs(cspin), _mosi(mosipin), _miso(misopin), _sck(sckpin), _sensorID(-1)
{ }



/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Setups the HW (reads coefficients values, etc.)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
bool Adafruit_LIS3DH::begin(uint8_t i2caddr) {
  _i2caddr = i2caddr;


  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.begin();
  } else {
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    pinMode(_cs, OUTPUT);

#ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
    if (_sck == -1) {
      // hardware SPI
      SPI.begin();
    } else {
      // software SPI
      pinMode(_sck, OUTPUT);
      pinMode(_mosi, OUTPUT);
      pinMode(_miso, INPUT);
    }
#endif
  }

  /*
  for (uint8_t i=0; i<0x30; i++) {
    Serial.print("$");
    Serial.print(i, HEX); Serial.print(" = 0x");
    Serial.println(readRegister8(i), HEX);
  }
  */

  /* Check connection */
  uint8_t deviceid = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_WHOAMI);
  if (deviceid != 0x33)
  {
    /* No LIS3DH detected ... return false */
    //Serial.println(deviceid, HEX);
    return false;
  }

  // enable all axes, normal mode
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1, 0x07);
  // 400Hz rate
  setDataRate(LIS3DH_DATARATE_400_HZ);

  // High res & BDU enabled
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4, 0x88);

  // DRDY on INT1
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, 0x10);

  // Turn on orientation config
  //writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_PL_CFG, 0x40);

  // enable adcs
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TEMPCFG, 0x80);

  /*
  for (uint8_t i=0; i<0x30; i++) {
    Serial.print("$");
    Serial.print(i, HEX); Serial.print(" = 0x");
    Serial.println(readRegister8(i), HEX);
  }
  */

  return true;
}

void Adafruit_LIS3DH::read(void) {
  // read x y z at once

  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write(LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_L | 0x80); // 0x80 for autoincrement
    Wire.endTransmission();

    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 6);
    x = Wire.read(); x |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
    y = Wire.read(); y |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
    z = Wire.read(); z |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_L | 0x80 | 0x40); // read multiple, bit 7&6 high

  x = spixfer(); x |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;
  y = spixfer(); y |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;
  z = spixfer(); z |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;

  digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
  if (_sck == -1)
  SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif
  uint8_t range = getRange();
  uint16_t divider = 1;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_16_G) divider = 1365; // different sensitivity at 16g
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_8_G) divider = 4096;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_4_G) divider = 8190;
  if (range == LIS3DH_RANGE_2_G) divider = 16380;

  x_g = (float)x / divider;
  y_g = (float)y / divider;
  z_g = (float)z / divider;

}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Read the auxilary ADC
*/
/**************************************************************************/

int16_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::readADC(uint8_t adc) {
  if ((adc < 1) || (adc > 3)) return 0;
  uint16_t value;

  adc--;

  uint8_t reg = LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC1_L + adc*2;

  if (_cs == -1) {
    // i2c
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write(reg | 0x80);   // 0x80 for autoincrement
    Wire.endTransmission();
    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 2);
    value = Wire.read();  value |= ((uint16_t)Wire.read()) << 8;
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg | 0x80 | 0x40); // read multiple, bit 7&6 high

    value = spixfer(); value |= ((uint16_t)spixfer()) << 8;

    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif

  return value;
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Set INT to output for single or double click
*/
/**************************************************************************/

void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setClick(uint8_t c, uint8_t clickthresh, uint8_t timelimit, uint8_t timelatency, uint8_t timewindow) {
  if (!c) {
    //disable int
    uint8_t r = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3);
    r &= ~(0x80); // turn off I1_CLICK
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, r);
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0);
    return;
  }
  // else...

  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3, 0x80); // turn on int1 click
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL5, 0x08); // latch interrupt on int1

  if (c == 1)
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0x15); // turn on all axes & singletap
  if (c == 2)
    writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG, 0x2A); // turn on all axes & doubletap


  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKTHS, clickthresh); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMELIMIT, timelimit); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMELATENCY, timelatency); // arbitrary
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_TIMEWINDOW, timewindow); // arbitrary
}

uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getClick(void) {
  return readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CLICKSRC);
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the g range for the accelerometer
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setRange(lis3dh_range_t range)
{
  uint8_t r = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4);
  r &= ~(0x30);
  r |= range << 4;
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4, r);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the g range for the accelerometer
*/
/**************************************************************************/
lis3dh_range_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getRange(void)
{
  /* Read the data format register to preserve bits */
  return (lis3dh_range_t)((readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4) >> 4) & 0x03);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the data rate for the LIS3DH (controls power consumption)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::setDataRate(lis3dh_dataRate_t dataRate)
{
  uint8_t ctl1 = readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1);
  ctl1 &= ~(0xF0); // mask off bits
  ctl1 |= (dataRate << 4);
  writeRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1, ctl1);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Sets the data rate for the LIS3DH (controls power consumption)
*/
/**************************************************************************/
lis3dh_dataRate_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::getDataRate(void)
{
  return (lis3dh_dataRate_t)((readRegister8(LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1) >> 4)& 0x0F);
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Gets the most recent sensor event
*/
/**************************************************************************/
bool Adafruit_LIS3DH::getEvent(sensors_event_t *event) {
  /* Clear the event */
  memset(event, 0, sizeof(sensors_event_t));

  event->version   = sizeof(sensors_event_t);
  event->sensor_id = _sensorID;
  event->type      = SENSOR_TYPE_ACCELEROMETER;
  event->timestamp = 0;

  read();

  event->acceleration.x = x_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
  event->acceleration.y = y_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
  event->acceleration.z = z_g * SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD;
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Gets the sensor_t data
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::getSensor(sensor_t *sensor) {
  /* Clear the sensor_t object */
  memset(sensor, 0, sizeof(sensor_t));

  /* Insert the sensor name in the fixed length char array */
  strncpy (sensor->name, "LIS3DH", sizeof(sensor->name) - 1);
  sensor->name[sizeof(sensor->name)- 1] = 0;
  sensor->version     = 1;
  sensor->sensor_id   = _sensorID;
  sensor->type        = SENSOR_TYPE_ACCELEROMETER;
  sensor->min_delay   = 0;
  sensor->max_value   = 0;
  sensor->min_value   = 0;
  sensor->resolution  = 0;
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Low level SPI
*/
/**************************************************************************/

uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::spixfer(uint8_t x) {
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  if (_sck == -1)
    return SPI.transfer(x);

  // software spi
  //Serial.println("Software SPI");
  uint8_t reply = 0;
  for (int i=7; i>=0; i--) {
    reply <<= 1;
    digitalWrite(_sck, LOW);
    digitalWrite(_mosi, x & (1<<i));
    digitalWrite(_sck, HIGH);
    if (digitalRead(_miso))
      reply |= 1;
  }
  return reply;
  #endif
}


/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Writes 8-bits to the specified destination register
*/
/**************************************************************************/
void Adafruit_LIS3DH::writeRegister8(uint8_t reg, uint8_t value) {
  if (_cs == -1) {
    Wire.beginTransmission((uint8_t)_i2caddr);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)reg);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)value);
    Wire.endTransmission();
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg & ~0x80); // write, bit 7 low
    spixfer(value);
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();              // release the SPI bus
  }
  #endif
}

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @brief  Reads 8-bits from the specified register
*/
/**************************************************************************/
uint8_t Adafruit_LIS3DH::readRegister8(uint8_t reg) {
  uint8_t value;

  if (_cs == -1) {
    Wire.beginTransmission(_i2caddr);
    Wire.write((uint8_t)reg);
    Wire.endTransmission();

    Wire.requestFrom(_i2caddr, 1);
    value = Wire.read();
  }
  #ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__
  else {
    if (_sck == -1)
    SPI.begin();
    SPI.setClockSpeed(500000);
    SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
    SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, LOW);
    spixfer(reg | 0x80); // read, bit 7 high
    value = spixfer(0);
    digitalWrite(_cs, HIGH);
    if (_sck == -1)
      SPI.end();
  }
  #endif
  return value;
}

Adafruit_LIS3DH.h

/**************************************************************************/
/*!
    @file     Adafruit_LIS3DH.h
    @author   K. Townsend / Limor Fried (Adafruit Industries)
    @license  BSD (see license.txt)

    This is a library for the Adafruit LIS3DH Accel breakout board
    ----> https://www.adafruit.com/products/2809

    Adafruit invests time and resources providing this open source code,
    please support Adafruit and open-source hardware by purchasing
    products from Adafruit!

    @section  HISTORY

    v1.0  - First release
*/
/**************************************************************************/

#if defined (SPARK)
#include "application.h"
#else
  #if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
    #include "Arduino.h"
  #else
    #include "WProgram.h"
  #endif
#endif

#include "Adafruit_Sensor.h"
#ifndef __AVR_ATtiny85__

/*=========================================================================
    I2C ADDRESS/BITS
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------*/
    #define LIS3DH_DEFAULT_ADDRESS  (0x18)    // if SDO/SA0 is 3V, its 0x19
/*=========================================================================*/

#define LIS3DH_REG_STATUS1       0x07
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC1_L     0x08
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC1_H     0x09
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC2_L     0x0A
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC2_H     0x0B
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC3_L     0x0C
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUTADC3_H     0x0D
#define LIS3DH_REG_INTCOUNT      0x0E
#define LIS3DH_REG_WHOAMI        0x0F
#define LIS3DH_REG_TEMPCFG       0x1F
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL1         0x20
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL2         0x21
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL3         0x22
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL4         0x23
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL5         0x24
#define LIS3DH_REG_CTRL6         0x25
#define LIS3DH_REG_REFERENCE     0x26
#define LIS3DH_REG_STATUS2       0x27
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_L       0x28
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_X_H       0x29
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_Y_L       0x2A
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_Y_H       0x2B
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_Z_L       0x2C
#define LIS3DH_REG_OUT_Z_H       0x2D
#define LIS3DH_REG_FIFOCTRL      0x2E
#define LIS3DH_REG_FIFOSRC       0x2F
#define LIS3DH_REG_INT1CFG       0x30
#define LIS3DH_REG_INT1SRC       0x31
#define LIS3DH_REG_INT1THS       0x32
#define LIS3DH_REG_INT1DUR       0x33
#define LIS3DH_REG_CLICKCFG      0x38
#define LIS3DH_REG_CLICKSRC      0x39
#define LIS3DH_REG_CLICKTHS      0x3A
#define LIS3DH_REG_TIMELIMIT     0x3B
#define LIS3DH_REG_TIMELATENCY   0x3C
#define LIS3DH_REG_TIMEWINDOW    0x3D

typedef enum
{
  LIS3DH_RANGE_16_G         = 0b11,   // +/- 16g
  LIS3DH_RANGE_8_G           = 0b10,   // +/- 8g
  LIS3DH_RANGE_4_G           = 0b01,   // +/- 4g
  LIS3DH_RANGE_2_G           = 0b00    // +/- 2g (default value)
} lis3dh_range_t;

typedef enum
{
  LIS3DH_AXIS_X         = 0x0,
  LIS3DH_AXIS_Y         = 0x1,
  LIS3DH_AXIS_Z         = 0x2,
} lis3dh_axis_t;


/* Used with register 0x2A (LIS3DH_REG_CTRL_REG1) to set bandwidth */
typedef enum
{
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_400_HZ     = 0b0111, //  400Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_200_HZ     = 0b0110, //  200Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_100_HZ     = 0b0101, //  100Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_50_HZ      = 0b0100, //   50Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_25_HZ      = 0b0011, //   25Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_10_HZ      = 0b0010, // 10 Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_1_HZ       = 0b0001, // 1 Hz
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_POWERDOWN  = 0,
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_LOWPOWER_1K6HZ  = 0b1000,
  LIS3DH_DATARATE_LOWPOWER_5KHZ  =  0b1001,

} lis3dh_dataRate_t;

class Adafruit_LIS3DH : public Adafruit_Sensor {
 public:
  Adafruit_LIS3DH(void);
  Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin);
  Adafruit_LIS3DH(int8_t cspin, int8_t mosipin, int8_t misopin, int8_t sckpin);

  bool       begin(uint8_t addr = LIS3DH_DEFAULT_ADDRESS);

  void read();
  int16_t readADC(uint8_t a);

  void setRange(lis3dh_range_t range);
  lis3dh_range_t getRange(void);

  void setDataRate(lis3dh_dataRate_t dataRate);
  lis3dh_dataRate_t getDataRate(void);

  bool getEvent(sensors_event_t *event);
  void getSensor(sensor_t *sensor);

  uint8_t getOrientation(void);

  void setClick(uint8_t c, uint8_t clickthresh, uint8_t timelimit = 10, uint8_t timelatency = 20, uint8_t timewindow = 255);
  uint8_t getClick(void);

  int16_t x, y, z;
  float x_g, y_g, z_g;

 private:

  uint8_t readRegister8(uint8_t reg);
  void writeRegister8(uint8_t reg, uint8_t value);
  uint8_t spixfer(uint8_t x = 0xFF);


  int32_t _sensorID;
  int8_t  _i2caddr;

  // SPI
  int8_t _cs, _mosi, _miso, _sck;
};

#endif

Adafruit_Sensor.h

/*
* Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
*
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
* http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software< /span>
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
*/

/* Update by K. Townsend (Adafruit Industries) for lighter typedefs, and
 * extended sensor support to include color, voltage and current */

#ifndef _ADAFRUIT_SENSOR_H
#define _ADAFRUIT_SENSOR_H

#if defined (SPARK)
  #include "application.h"
#else
  #if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
    #include "Arduino.h"
  #else
    #include "WProgram.h"
  #endif
#endif

/* Intentionally modeled after sensors.h in the Android API:
 * https://github.com/android/platform_hardware_libhardware/blob/master/include/hardware/sensors.h */

/* Constants */
#define SENSORS_GRAVITY_EARTH             (9.80665F)              /**< Earth's gravity in m/s^2 */
#define SENSORS_GRAVITY_MOON              (1.6F)                  /**< The moon's gravity in m/s^2 */
#define SENSORS_GRAVITY_SUN               (275.0F)                /**< The sun's gravity in m/s^2 */
#define SENSORS_GRAVITY_STANDARD          (SENSORS_GRAVITY_EARTH)
#define SENSORS_MAGFIELD_EARTH_MAX        (60.0F)                 /**< Maximum magnetic field on Earth's surface */
#define SENSORS_MAGFIELD_EARTH_MIN        (30.0F)                 /**< Minimum magnetic field on Earth's surface */
#define SENSORS_PRESSURE_SEALEVELHPA      (1013.25F)              /**< Average sea level pressure is 1013.25 hPa */
#define SENSORS_DPS_TO_RADS               (0.017453293F)          /**< Degrees/s to rad/s multiplier */
#define SENSORS_GAUSS_TO_MICROTESLA       (100)                   /**< Gauss to micro-Tesla multiplier */

/** Sensor types */
typedef enum
{
  SENSOR_TYPE_ACCELEROMETER         = (1),   /**< Gravity + linear acceleration */
  SENSOR_TYPE_MAGNETIC_FIELD        = (2),
  SENSOR_TYPE_ORIENTATION           = (3),
  SENSOR_TYPE_GYROSCOPE             = (4),
  SENSOR_TYPE_LIGHT                 = (5),
  SENSOR_TYPE_PRESSURE              = (6),
  SENSOR_TYPE_PROXIMITY             = (8),
  SENSOR_TYPE_GRAVITY               = (9),
  SENSOR_TYPE_LINEAR_ACCELERATION   = (10),  /**< Acceleration not including gravity */
  SENSOR_TYPE_ROTATION_VECTOR       = (11),
  SENSOR_TYPE_RELATIVE_HUMIDITY     = (12),
  SENSOR_TYPE_AMBIENT_TEMPERATURE   = (13),
  SENSOR_TYPE_VOLTAGE               = (15),
  SENSOR_TYPE_CURRENT               = (16),
  SENSOR_TYPE_COLOR                 = (17)
} sensors_type_t;

/** struct sensors_vec_s is used to return a vector in a common format. */
typedef struct {
    union {
        float v[3];
        struct {
            float x;
            float y;
            float z;
        };
        /* Orientation sensors */
        struct {
            float roll;    /**< Rotation around the longitudinal axis (the plane body, 'X axis'). Roll is positive and increasing when moving downward. -90�<=roll<=90� */
            float pitch;   /**< Rotation around the lateral axis (the wing span, 'Y axis'). Pitch is positive and increasing when moving upwards. -180�<=pitch<=180�) */
            float heading; /**< Angle between the longitudinal axis (the plane body) and magnetic north, measured clockwise when viewing from the top of the device. 0-359� */
        };
    };
    int8_t status;
    uint8_t reserved[3];
} sensors_vec_t;

/** struct sensors_color_s is used to return color data in a common format. */
typedef struct {
    union {
        float c[3];
        /* RGB color space */
        struct {
            float r;       /**< Red component */
            float g;       /**< Green component */
            float b;       /**< Blue component */
        };
    };
    uint32_t rgba;         /**< 24-bit RGBA value */
} sensors_color_t;

/* Sensor event (36 bytes) */
/** struct sensor_event_s is used to provide a single sensor event in a common format. */
typedef struct
{
    int32_t version;                          /**< must be sizeof(struct sensors_event_t) */
    int32_t sensor_id;                        /**< unique sensor identifier */
    int32_t type;                             /**< sensor type */
    int32_t reserved0;                        /**< reserved */
    int32_t timestamp;                        /**< time is in milliseconds */
    union
    {
        float           data[4];
        sensors_vec_t   acceleration;         /**< acceleration values are in meter per second per second (m/s^2) */
        sensors_vec_t   magnetic;             /**< magnetic vector values are in micro-Tesla (uT) */
        sensors_vec_t   orientation;          /**< orientation values are in degrees */
        sensors_vec_t   gyro;                 /**< gyroscope values are in rad/s */
        float           temperature;          /**< temperature is in degrees centigrade (Celsius) */
        float           distance;             /**< distance in centimeters */
        float           light;                /**< light in SI lux units */
        float           pressure;             /**< pressure in hectopascal (hPa) */
        float           relative_humidity;    /**< relative humidity in percent */
        float           current;              /**< current in milliamps (mA) */
        float           voltage;              /**< voltage in volts (V) */
        sensors_color_t color;                /**< color in RGB component values */
    };
} sensors_event_t;

/* Sensor details (40 bytes) */
/** struct sensor_s is used to describe basic information about a specific sensor. */
typedef struct
{
    char     name[12];                        /**< sensor name */
    int32_t  version;                         /**< version of the hardware + driver */
    int32_t  sensor_id;                       /**< unique sensor identifier */
    int32_t  type;                            /**< this sensor's type (ex. SENSOR_TYPE_LIGHT) */
    float    max_value;                       /**< maximum value of this sensor's value in SI units */
    float    min_value;                       /**< minimum value of this sensor's value in SI units */
    float    resolution;                      /**< smallest difference between two values reported by this sensor */
    int32_t  min_delay;                       /**< min delay in microseconds between events. zero = not a constant rate */
} sensor_t;

class Adafruit_Sensor {
 public:
  // Constructor(s)
  Adafruit_Sensor() {}
  virtual ~Adafruit_Sensor() {}

  // These must be defined by the subclass
  virtual void enableAutoRange(bool enabled) {};
  virtual bool getEvent(sensors_event_t*) = 0;
  virtual void getSensor(sensor_t*) = 0;

 private:
  bool _autoRange;
};

#endif

This way you are actually using SoftSPI on the HardwareSPI pins.
If you want to use HW SPI, you’d use Adafruit_LIS3DH lis(LIS3DH_CS);
For I2C you’d just use Adafruit_LIS3DH lis; (yes, really ;-))
And the I2C pins on the Photon are SDA->D0 / SCL -> D1

Although the shield looks like having its own pull-ups, try adding two 10k pull-up resistors for testing.

1 Like

Thanks a lot - all of our prototypes are currently out testing, but we will give it a try as soon as we get some back again :smile:

Thanks a lot.