A great & very cheap MP3 sound module without need for a library!

I’ll be indebted to you forever - not just the hardware, also the fun and the puzzles it gives me to solve

Many thanks again!

If you need any help with your project, you know where to find me :wink:

BTW: Anything in particular to explain in that sketch - there is no rocket science in it :sunglasses:


Glad it brings you fun @ScruffR !

Thanks for the comments // in your sketch. This helps me to follow…
Unfortunately, I cannot focus on this subject at this moment…
Definitely I will check out that Nextion display and I will keep you informed when I make my final “Juke-Box”!

FiDel :yum:

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@FiDel Glad it is working - Nextion displays are good, although as @ScruffR mentions the display compiler/editor is a bit tricky to master. There are cheaper touch screen displays but these will use up all the GPIO. Given the Nextion display uses a serial connection and so does the MP3 player - I just wondered how he interfaced to one of them - USB serial or software serial using GPIO?

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@armor, having a shared serial port is an issue. Another alternative is to use a Digole touchscreen display in I2C or SPI mode. It dosen’t have a fancy editor but it is quite suitable for the job. A lot of display tasks can be offloaded onto the unit. :smile:

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10 posts were split to a new topic: Nextion display AND DFPlayer MP3 module

hi all
I would like to make a voice recorder. I find the dfplayer very interesting. Somebody know if is it possible to recording directly the voice inside the SD card ?

Thank you

Nope, this chip is only meant for MP3 playback, not for recording.

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Ok thank you, it’s too bad :slight_smile:

@Sherkann, you may want to look at this module:

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Hey guys,

Sorry to resurrect this old topic… I’m hoping to add sound to a project using the DFPlayer Mini module and I have to say, I’m a bit puzzled. After perusing this thread, I’m not feeling too bad about myself considering that it took this team a while to iron out this device!

My trouble is specific. I’ve my files organized like so:

but… using the sketch below, I can only play individual mp3 files using odd numbers e.g. :

7E FF 06 03 00 00 01 xx xx EF


7E FF 06 03 00 00 03 xx xx EF

where this command plays 002.mp3 despite its asking for 03!


7E FF 06 03 00 00 02 xx xx EF

plays nothing…

I’m using this program…

/* DF Player mini command discovery (Modified for Particle world by @FiDel - Feb 16, 2016)
This program is meant to discover all the possibilities of the command structure of the DFPlayer mini.
No special libraries are needed.
It's very easy to understand and can be the basis for your own mp3 player sketch.
Note: Commands are not always correctly described in the manual. I tried to fix it, but there is still a lot to do. The commands recoverd so far are listed below.

Use of sketch: Enter three (separated) decimal numbers in the Serial Monitor with no end of line character.
First number : Command
Second number: First (High Byte) parameter
Third number : Second (Low Byte) parameter
E.g.: 3,0,1 will play the first track on the TF card

Very important for 5V Arduinos: Use serial 1K resistors or a level shifter between module RX and TX and Arduino to suppress noise
Connect Sound module board RX to Arduino pin 11 (via 1K resistor)
Connect Sound module board TX to Arduino pin 10 (via 1K resistor)
Connect Sound module board Vcc to Arduino Vin when powered via USB (preferably 3.0) else use seperate 5V power supply
Connect Sound module board GND to Arduino GND

General DF Player mini command structure (only byte 3, 5 and 6 to be entered in the serial monitor):
Byte Function Value
==== ================ ====
(0) Start Byte 0x7E
(1) Version Info 0xFF (don't know why it's called Version Info)
(2) Number of bytes 0x06 (Always 6 bytes)
(3) Command 0x__
(4) Command feedback 0x__ If enabled returns info with command 0x41 [0x01: info, 0x00: no info]
(5) Parameter 1 [DH] 0x__
(6) Parameter 2 [DL] 0x__
(7) Checksum high 0x__ See explanation below. Is calculated in function: execute_CMD
(8) Checksum low 0x__ See explanation below. Is calculated in function: execute_CMD
(9) End command 0xEF

Checksum calculation.
Checksum = -Sum(byte(1..6)) (2 bytes, notice minus sign!)

Commands without returned parameters (*=Confirmed command ?=Unknown, not clear or not validated)
HEX Dec Function Description Parameters(2 x 8 bit)
==== === =================================== ========================================================================
0x01 1 Next * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Next file in current folder.Loops when last file played
0x02 2 Previous * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Previous file in current folder.Loops when last file played
0x03 3 Specify track(NUM) * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
1~2999 Playing order is order in which the numbers are stored.
Filename and foldername are arbitrary, but when named starting with
an increasing number and in one folder, files are played in
that order and with correct track number.
e.g. 0001-Joe Jackson.mp3...0348-Lets dance.mp3)
0x04 4 Increase volume * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Increase volume by 1
0x05 5 Decrease volume * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Decrease volume by 1
0x06 6 Specify volume * [DH]=X, [DL]= Volume (0-0x30) Default=0x30
0x07 7 Specify Equalizer * [DH]=X, [DL]= EQ(0/1/2/3/4/5) [Normal/Pop/Rock/Jazz/Classic/Base]
0x08 8 Specify repeat(NUM) * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM).Repeat the specified track number
0x09 9 Specify playback source (Datasheet) ? [DH]=X, [DL]= (0/1/2/3/4)Unknown. Seems to be overrided by automatic detection
0x0A 10 Enter into standby – low power loss * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Works, but no command found yet to end standby
(insert TF-card again will end standby mode)
0x0B 11 Normal working (Datasheet) ? Unknown. No error code, but no function found
0x0C 12 Reset module * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Resets all (Track = 0x01, Volume = 0x30)
Will return 0x3F initialization parameter (0x02 for TF-card)
"Clap" sound after excecuting command (no solution found)
0x0D 13 Play * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Play current selected track
0x0E 14 Pause * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Pause track
0x0F 15 Specify folder and file to playback * [DH]=Folder, [DL]=File
Important: Folders must be named 01~99, files must be named 001~255
0x10 16 Volume adjust set (Datasheet) ? Unknown. No error code. Does not change the volume gain.
0x11 17 Loop play * [DH]=X, [DL]=(0x01:play, 0x00:stop play)
Loop play all the tracks. Start at track 1.
0x12 18 Play mp3 file [NUM] in mp3 folder * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
Play mp3 file in folder named mp3 in your TF-card. File format exact
4-digit number (0001~2999) e.g. 0235.mp3
0x13 19 Unknown ? Unknown: Returns error code 0x07
0x14 20 Unknown ? Unknown: Returns error code 0x06
0x15 21 Unknown ? Unknown: Returns no error code, but no function found
0x16 22 Stop * [DH]=X, [DL]=X, Stop playing current track
0x17 23 Loop Folder 01 * [DH]=x, [DL]=1~255, Loops all tracks in folder named "01"
0x18 24 Random play * [DH]=X, [DL]=X Random all tracks, always starts at track 1
0x19 25 Single loop * [DH]=0, [DL]=0 Loops the track that is playing
0x1A 26 Pause * [DH]=X, [DL]=(0x01:pause, 0x00:stop pause)

Commands with returned parameters (*=Confirmed command ?=Unknown, not clear or not validated)
HEX Dec Function Description Parameters(2 x 8 bit)
==== === =================================== ===========================================================================
0x3A 58 Medium inserted * [DH]=0, [DL]=(1:U-disk, 2:TF-card)
0x3B 59 Medium ejected * [DH]=0, [DL]=(1:U-disk, 2:TF-card)
0x3C 60 Finished track on U-disk * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
Not validated. Returns track number when song is finished on U-Disk
0x3D 61 Finished track on TF-card * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
Returns track number when song is finished on TF
0x3E 62 Finished track on Flash * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
Not validated. Returns track number when song is finished on Flash
0x3F 63 Initialization parameters * [DH]=0, [DL]= 0 ~ 0x0F. Returned code when Reset (0x12) is used.
(each bit represent one device of the low-four bits)
See Datasheet. 0x02 is TF-card. Error 0x01 when no medium is inserted.
0x40 64 Error ? [DH]=0, [DL]= 0~7 Error code(Returned codes not yet analyzed)
0x41 65 Reply ? [DH]=0, [DL]= 0~? Return code when command feedback is high
0x00 no Error (Other returned code not known)
0x42 66 The current status * [DH] = Device number [DL] = 0 no play, 1 play
0x43 67 The current volume * [DH]=0, [DL]= Volume (0-30)
0x44 68 The current EQ * [DH]=0, [DL]= EQ(0/1/2/3/4/5) [Normal/Pop/Rock/Jazz/Classic/Base]
0x45 69 The current playback mode * [DH]=0, [DL]= (0x00: no CMD 0x08 used, 0x02: CMD 0x08 used, not usefull)
0x46 70 The current software version * [DH]=0, [DL]= Software version. (My version is 5)
0x47 71 The total number of U-disk files * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM). Not validated
0x48 72 The total number of TF-card files * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM)
0x49 73 The total number of flash files * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM). Not validated
0x4A 74 Keep on (Datasheet) ? Unknown. No returned parameter
0x4B 75 The current track of U-Disk * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM), Current track on all media
0x4C 76 The current track of TF card * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM), Current track on all media
0x4D 77 The current track of Flash * [DH]=highByte(NUM), [DL]=lowByte(NUM), Current track on all media
0x4E 78 Folder "01" [DH]=x, [DL]=1 * [DH]=0, [DL]=(NUM) Change to first track in folder "01"
Returns number of files in folder "01"
0x4F 79 The total number of folders * [DH]=0, [DL]=(NUM), Total number of folders, including root directory

Additional info can be found on DFRobot site, but is not very reliable
Additional info:http://www.dfrobot.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=1121

Ype Brada 2015-04-06

# define Start_Byte 0x7E
# define Version_Byte 0xFF
# define Command_Length 0x06
# define End_Byte 0xEF
# define Acknowledge 0x00 //Returns info with command 0x41 [0x01: info, 0x00: no info]

void setup ()

 execute_CMD(0x3F, 0, 0); // Send request for initialization parameters

 while (Serial1.available()<10) // Wait until initialization parameters are received (10 bytes)
 delay(30); // Pretty long delays between succesive commands needed (not always the same)

 // Initialize sound to very low volume. Adapt according used speaker and wanted volume
 execute_CMD(0x06, 0, 15); // Set the volume (0x00~0x30)

void loop ()
 if (Serial.available())
  // Input in the Serial monitor: Command and the two parameters in decimal numbers (NOT HEX)
  // E.g. 3,0,1 (or 3 0 1 or 3;0;1) will play first track on the TF-card
  byte Command = Serial.parseInt();
  byte Parameter1 = Serial.parseInt();
  byte Parameter2 = Serial.parseInt();

  // Write the input at the screen
  Serial.print("Command : 0x");if (Command < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(Command, HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial.print(Command, DEC);
  Serial.print("); Parameter: 0x");if (Parameter1 < 16) Serial.print("0");Serial.print(Parameter1, HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial.print(Parameter1, DEC);
  Serial.print("), 0x");if (Parameter2 < 16) Serial.print("0");Serial.print(Parameter2, HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial.print(Parameter2, DEC);Serial.println(")");

  // Excecute the entered command and parameters
  execute_CMD(Command, Parameter1, Parameter2);

 if (Serial1.available()>=10) // There is at least 1 returned message (10 bytes each)
  // Read the returned code
  byte Returned[10];
  for (byte k=0; k<10; k++)
  Returned[k] = Serial1.read();

  // Wtite the returned code to the screen
  Serial.print("Returned: 0x"); if (Returned[3] < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(Returned[3],HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial.print(Returned[3], DEC);
  Serial.print("); Parameter: 0x"); if (Returned[5] < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(Returned[5],HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial1.print(Returned[5], DEC);
  Serial.print("), 0x"); if (Returned[6] < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(Returned[6],HEX);
  Serial.print("("); Serial.print(Returned[6], DEC); Serial.println(")");

void execute_CMD(byte CMD, byte Par1, byte Par2) // Excecute the command and parameters
 // Calculate the checksum (2 bytes)
 int16_t checksum = -(Version_Byte + Command_Length + CMD + Acknowledge + Par1 + Par2);

 // Build the command line
 byte Command_line[10] = { Start_Byte, Version_Byte, Command_Length, CMD, Acknowledge, Par1, Par2, checksum >> 8, checksum & 0xFF, End_Byte};

 //Send the command line to the module
 for (byte k=0; k<10; k++)
  Serial1.write( Command_line[k]);

sorry to bother!

I’m supposed to use 0F for playback of a single mp3 file, not 03.


7E FF 06 0F 00 00 02 xx xx EF

the manual is crystal clear!

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For those who are following this old-ish thread…

Searching for a way to use the ‘advertise’ method to pause playback, I found this library with a great example of how to accomplish just that. I’m able to set the MP3 playback to music and when an alert is needed, pause the playback, play the alert notification and resume playback (in software versus the hardware example in the link).

fadeTimer = millis();
int currentState = MP3.readState();
if(currentState == 512)  // returns 512 if no song is playing
  Particle.publish("pushover", String(currentState));
  MP3.playFolder(0x00, 0x02);
  Particle.publish("pushover", String(MP3.readState()));
  while(millis() - fadeTimer < 3000) // yeah it blocks, but for my project... it is fine
    //Particle.process(); // not needed here

If I get the time I may port the library (really nothing to it; switching from software serial to Serial1 on the Photon) and put up some better examples.

This little MP3 player is the tits… add some sound to your projects for less than $2.00. Thanks @FiDel for posting this and be sure to check out the library if you are using this player.


Thanks for your credits @BulldogLowell !
It would be great if you could port that little library to the Photon… :wave::older_man:


Hi folks,

Does anyone have an idea if it is possible to update the sound files on the module’s SD card via the Particle? In other words, if the Particle has a new sound file it wants to write to the SD card, so that it can later be played back by the module, is there any way to do this? I’m trying to figure out a way to update over the air the sounds that can be played, without having to physically remove the SD card or otherwise physically be at the Particle/module (note that I’m NOT needing to play sounds live over the air – just update them over the air, for subsequent playing from the SD card).

Any thoughts?

I note that the module appears to have USB +/- pins on it, but don’t know how this would work or if there are commands on the chip to support this?

I also see over in the library example referenced by @BulldogLowell that there appear to be multiple playback sources defined, in addition to SD: U, AUX, SLEEP, and FLASH. Any idea if one of these might somehow help solve the overall requirement?

Thanks in advance for any thoughts!

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From everything I have read, you cannot write to this device. That said, you could certainly try to use an ordinary SD card module for that purpose.

This device shines with ‘canned’ sounds and the Advertise function works very well too.

These USB pins on the module are meant to host USB storage devices and not to have the module act as a client devices.
But at some point the Particle devices might incorporate a USB Mass Storage profile (USB MSC) to make them act as storage devices - just as the USB HID profiles have been added a while back.

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Hello. Can you show a quick sketch of exactly how you connected the speakers through the capacitors?

It’s possible but requires some special coding.

I paid @peekay123 to write some code for me that downloaded files from my hosted website and stored them on a connected SD card. I then used those downloaded files to display images on an LCD screen. I see no reason why it couldn’t store audio files also which I have thought of in the past.

You would have to talk with him about the code, I know he’s a busy guy and I think that code may need some updating for the latest firmware.

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This won’t work without manual interaction, since the MP3 module doesn’t expose the SD card for write access to the controller. So you’d need someone to swap the SD card in the MP3 module for the updated card the controller had access to.

For low quality sound you could send raw PCM WAV data and send that via the A3/A6 DACs through and amplifier.

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I see, I was assuming you could access the SD card to read and write to it.

You would need a different MP3 audio chip then.